In any Linux you can configure sudo to not use a password but...
AFAIK Linux does not have such thing as "safe desktop" built in.
All processes share the same window manager session.
Any Process can emulate Input to each other Process.
So not asking for a password is just not safe. (asking for one is not "safer" anyway)
The only safe linux I know
is cubes OS
but I did not dare to try it out yet (because of my lack of spare time paired to my curiosity).